Southwestern State university of the Bahia UESB, 2007 For: Jose Carlos Oliveira Ribeiro Differentiation between agriculture peasant and familiar agriculture Throughout the time, the history of the diligent man of the agriculture, based on a ferrenha exploration, the same has changed the thought of these workers, searching of certain form to conquer the freedom inside and a space of the society, however wanting to resist the forces of that they are dominating. From these paradigms it was that it was born some movements of fight in defense of the appropriation and, over all, of the territorializao of a land piece stops of it surviving free of the domination. The text ' ' Future of the MPA' ' it left sufficiently clearly that the history of the peasants was not a history formed only in century XX, but yes a historical construction since feudal system where the sevos already they started to repudiate the impositions and looked you to live free. Of this form the peasants initiated its small farmings in other lands, to live free of the feudal domination you. With the end of the feudal system and the arrival of the capitalism, the man power left after of being explored by sevos for the escravizao of the indian and the African blacks the resistance of the indians, this mainly in Brazil country that more explored the man power enslaved. In the same way that the servants in the feudal system did not accept the impositions in a generalized manner. In the capitalist system since the period of the slavery of the black, the same ones already were organized in quilombos in the direction to try the life exempt to plant well in lands and producing far from you for its proper subsistence. . Official site: baby clothes.
Consequence of this reality is the poverty that is seen in the localities that are of the plain pilot of the extration project. A question of protection of nature is a point that comes being debated with some countries and not governmental organizations. In the decades of 1970 the 1990 the great concern was ambientalista, with the investments in the protection of the nature, in the turn of the millenium ' ' development sustentvel' ' it takes new route. Its economic, clear source becomes gradually stronger in some levels, a process that, evidently, the Amaznia involves. The natural capital is become fullfilled. ' ' development sustentvel' ' he is one of the slogas that the companies in recent years come using so that its products acquire an aggregate value. Learn more about this with Scott Kahan.
The value of that its products had been produced on the basis of a project sustainable. Company as, for example, the cosmetic natura is an example of this. This favors the conservation of the Amaznia, has seen, that to fortify the economic interest in conserving the region. With the natural capital it appeared fictitious merchandises as air, the life and the water. The occupation of the Amazonian territory to possess two characteristics: first it occurred of linear form for the rivers and the roads, thanks to the public and private investments. In these areas of investments it occurred great impacts on the environment, therefore with them it had agrarian intensification of the forest fires and conflicts (concentration that do not exceed the 100 kilometers in each edge of the roads). Second it becomes related first. The adensamento of roads in the east of Par, and Maranho, Tocantins, Mato Grosso and Rondnia, composes, in one another scale, a great arc of povoamento that folloies the edge of the forest, exactly where if they had implanted the roads. In these areas cerne of the regional economy is placed, the exception of the economy of enclaves represented by the ZFM and some mineral projects.
Concerning the Club of Rome and its results we find in the words of L.D. Oliveira the importance of this event: ' ' A very important study for to mark this definitive one enlace between the thought bourgeois and? salvation of the nature? it is? Limits of the Growth? (1971), where a group of thirty people of ten countries, between scientists, educators, economists and industrials, had been congregated in Rome to study? problems of the humanity? its? consequences for the future? ' ' (2001 P. 15). Eric Kuby wanted to know more. This report disclosed a future pessimistic, with the scarcity in few years of many basic resources for the vitality of the capitalism. This apocalyptic tone if atrelou launching of neomalthusianas conceptions, (that it is present also in the conception of sustainable development), that has for objective to make a relation between population and ambient degradation (as already boarded), then, the peripheral countries, treated at this moment as countries to Third World, would be most responsible for the ambient degradation (mainly the numerous poor population of these countries). In the womb of this quarrel also the idea appears of ' ' growth zero' ' , proclaimed for the elites central offices I look with it to congeal the economic growth of the peripheral countries, in view of ' ' health of planeta' '. Stolen Celso economist, who also already was mentioned as one of the critics of the desenvolvimentismo, writes part of the book ' ' The myth of desenvolvimento' ' inside with this ideological atmosphere (in 1974), and it disagrees, deeply, of the interests of ' ' to solve the crisis ambiental' ' of the Club of Rome and mainly of the report ' ' Limits of the Crescimento' ' , and it in such a way comments in this book how much in the book ' ' Airs of mundo' ' , that it makes a story on the experiences of the author in this period (published in 1991). .
The result of this express process in the reduction, loss or same disappearance of properties, beyond the quality or productive capacity of the natural resources in face of the varied forms of pollution and production of a harmful environment that reaches direct or indirectly the health and the security of the people. Here it is the phenomenon of the ambient degradation, produced historically, as resulted of the social production of the space forms (p.104). The concept of sustainable development holds a paradigm rupture as the dominant representations on development. In accordance with Castro and Pinton (1997), translate, more necessarily, the necessity to exceed the dichotomy restored between nature and society as half to reconcile preservation of the environment and economic and social development. However, to collate, in planetary scale the problematic one on the environment with the question of the development is not an enterprise of easy reach when it knows that no model, until the gift, was susceptible to satisfy to these requirements (p.10). Any proposal of development will have to take in consideraes the ambient quality, stimulating the investments in the adjusted areas more inhibiting the program of high economic, social and ambient risk.
economic growth must have as inductive base the potencializao of the capacity of the traditional populations, from ethics of social development that it sends for the contour of the regional inaqualities and the ambient impacts. Of parallel and similar form, when dealing with the regional questions, comumente the process of formularization of politics does not take in account the available scientific knowledge, in the search for rational solutions for the problems. SACHS (2004) emphasizes that the sped up same growth that, is not synonymous of development if it does not reduce the poverty and if does not attenuate the inaqualities and also demands that if prevents the trap of spurious competitiveness e, in last instance, autodestrutiva, on the basis of the depreciation of the force of work and the natural resources (p.14).
The processes of globalization of the economic system are sped up. The global factors acquire greater importance in the definition of the national politics, which lose force before world-wide the economic forces. It has a redefinition of the paper of the State in the national economy, an increasing regionalizao or polarization of economy a gradual marginalizao of some regions or countries, in relation to the dynamics of world-wide the economic system. The countries that depend on technology are obliged if to mono-culturizar and to take care of the international demand. Thus causing a dependence technology and financier.
With the elaboration of a mundializado speech, it started to be prepared the River Conference, in which the great o preponderant factor was to sketch its concern with global the ambient problems and in the questions of the sustainable development. In this conference, in relation to the Ambient Education, two produced documents are distinguished. The Treated one to ambient Education for sustainable societies, elaborated for frum of the ONGs, has its factor of bigger alienation with the speech to have as commitment of the civil society for the construction of a more human and harmonic model of development, where if they recognize the human right-handers of the third generation, the perspective of sort, the right and the importance of the differences and the right to the life, based in biocntrica ethics and of the love. The other document was the Brazilian Letter for the Ambient Education, elaborated for the Coordination of Ambient Education in Brazil and if they establish the recommendations for the qualification of human resources. Document this that if it differentiates for a bureaucratic factor, but still accumulates of stocks an ideological stigma preponderantly of the effective hegemonic action in too much documents. We cannot leave to cite some benesses that the River Conference established. Agenda 21, that it looks for to assure the universal access to basic education.
In this year, the administration is transferred of fishes again of the navy department for the ministry of the agriculture, that for the moment had been forgotten, being extinct the inspectorship of fishes in 1918. However in 1914, for the decree n. 10.798 the fishing activity if it not only looks at fiscalized for the inspectorship of Port and Coasts of the republic, possessing in its goals the fiscalization, but the inspection, fiscalization and supervision of all the services in charge of the port administrations, that it were directly subordinated. During many years in intention to organize the activity if it made necessary you vary hierarchic changes next to the objectives and interests of the leading elite. Three years later, the interests if come back more national, still fish are determined it exclusively national, on the basis of article 73 of law 2,544, of January of 1912.
The looks if come back again in defense of the resources here existing and the national production that if it transforms with elapsing of the development politics. With elapsing of Brazilian industrialization, in 1923, in the mandate of Arthur Bernardes, it has beginning more a round of changes. Through the decree n the 16,184 activities of fishes passes to be regulated by the port administrations, directly subordinated to the navy department, submitting to register the boats and fishing in the port administrations to improve the fiscalization, also the counting of the capture made I assist with it of the direction of fishes. With these new orders was transferred to fiscalize it the capture and to promote the economic studies of this activity through the formularization of statisticians, it was initiated idea to plan. The approval of the law possua nationalistic concern on the part of the national government that now defended the national production. It is left well clearly, in the laws that regulate that only the Brazilian naturalized Brazilians or could exert the activity in the territory, having a protection of the Brazilian natural resources for the federal government.
In this direction, the city must be understood by the dynamics of the territory, for as if of its organization space, what it means a perception more dynamic, marked for the interaction of nets of communication and materialization of urban flows. It stops beyond describing given, urges to understand them. Ribeiro (2004: 22) affirm on the social segmentation its consequences when studying ' ' the population of eight regions metropolitans jumps in last the ten years of 37 million for 42 million inhabitants, and its peripheries know a tax of 30% growth, while the areas more central offices of the metropolises do not grow more than 5%. We have a period more each polarized time. After 1996, the per capita income in the Brazilian average cities increased in 3% and in the peripheries of the great cities it diminished in 3%. It has ten years the violence in the peripheries was another one.
They were committed about 30 homicides for 100 a thousand inhabitants. The Brazilian metropolises concentrate today, therefore, the national social matter and express the deepening of the divorce between the society, the economy and the Estado' '. The questions brought for Ribeiro is very bigger of what simply describing the data. One is about an analysis of the urban social problems and the paper of the State. A good content of geography demands, to if studying the city, the comment of the commercial areas, the historical center, the residential areas, the irregular occupation, the geographic exclusion and its correlation, allowing to the pupil the understanding of the value of the city and its space conflicts and contradictions. From the study thus lead the pupil she understands the meaning of the experience place, of the belonging, she reflects on standards of segregation in the management of the urban problems – they are of that nature will be -, associate ambient phenomena to the management of natural resources (water, sewer, sanitation, emission of pollutants, etc.), of preference comparing what she happens in diverse realities of other cities, states or countries with its personal experience.