Economic Efficiency Investment Project Opt

For any business is important and sensible goal-directed investment activities. For all companies the relevance of investment projects is the need to create additional material base expansion, renovation of fixed assets. ASUS may not feel the same. Of course, every investor in this case is seeking the maximum profit at minimum cost, that is, to achieve optimal effectiveness. In connection with the This assessment of the effectiveness of investments and find ways to improve it, are of great practical importance. In this regard, the study was to assess the cost effectiveness of the investment project on optimization of shipment finished products in an industrial plant. There is currently no generally accepted understanding of the investment project. In the term "investment project", the authors of monographs and textbooks has different meanings. Analysis definitions of the term "investment project" allows us to conclude that the common two points of view.

The first – the investment project is considered as a set of design documentation, which practice allows for the entrepreneurial idea. The second point of view, the investment project – a process study of economic feasibility, scope and timing of investments, including the necessary design and construction documents, as well as the algorithm practical actions to implement the project, expressed in the form of a business plan. To sum up all of the above, we can give the following formulation concepts "Investment Project". Investment project – planned in detail the sequence of investment activities, characterized by a certain economic or social outcome. Aggregate documentation accompanying the decision to conduct these activities, reveals the legal, organizational, technical, marketing, socio-economic, financial and environmental aspects of investment. A variety of investment projects have to face in life, is extremely high. They vary widely in the field of application, scope, duration and amount of financial resources. However, any investment project consists of four equally important elements: 1) the period during which the actions envisaged by the project – current period (project period), 2) the costs – net investments, and 3) the potential benefits – the net cash flow from operations; 4) any release of capital at the end of the economic life of investment – the liquidation value.

Call Office

After the law on advertising of all the owners were obliged to follow the posting of ads on site. This means that one has more headaches – to avoid penalties, we must now regularly pick off the leaves from surrounding pillars, walls and other surfaces that are so fond of sculpting raskleyschiki advertising. Ordinary white leaflets, printed with standard text “Name of the service. phone ” multiply very quickly and with a density of about ten per square meter. Occasional efforts to clear neighborhoods of these ads tend to be a waste of time (and even to finance hired labor), so as to the next day at the same place again will hang a piece of paper with advertising.

As a result, struggle with raskleyschikami results in fixed costs. That is why many companies opt for an alternative way out – write out numbers of ads and put them on automatic telephone calls through the program. This method is also called “Chinese”, as was first used in China. The result is that the phone is constantly busy with advertiser robot, clients are not dialing, that causes damage and problems. This “Chinese” approach is much more effective ways of dealing with classical raskleyschikami and cost saving as opposed to mercenary forces for services scraps ads, which have to hire again and again. The program also sounded for all the expenses actually reduced to one-time purchase of software which is used as needed adjusting the list of phones. An excellent example of such a program for automated outgoing calls from a program Call Office – it is easy to configure, works with data in different formats.

Record Keeping

Accounting is tschtelnom viewing and shaping all financial information in the enterprise, as well as the timely implementation of any measures associated with the collapse or crisis in business economics, sphere of activity or state. All kinds of accounting services can not provide even a whole department in the company, so the Western experience shows that you want to use companies that Narrow involved in these services in the market, and evaluate the work of the enterprise as a whole. Community, as a developer, performs construction apartment building contracting method. Apart from this, the Community plays client features – for that purpose in the organization created a fresh section "Capital construction". On this episode of capital construction made from borrowed funds. Then, have all chances to be involved players (shareholders) – both legal and psychological that way faces. Apart from this, does not exclude the possibility if the apartment is a fraction of belonging and community will be used in their own business sense (For example, to send a gratuitous use of three-faced).

In a real incident the amount of VAT imposed on the payment of contractors, provided the account 19. 1. Maybe I use the account 08 "investments in fixed assets "for the cost accounting provided in the situation? 2. How are provided operations associated with the embodiment of the Community features the customer? 3. In a no episode of VAT, parry account 19 must be handed over to the players? How to dismiss a share in the share of VAT on all interest holders in accordance transmitted housing? Consistent with the main voprostsu.

Consistent with our views, the map builder 08 in the account of costs associated with construction of apartment buildings, does not contradict the activities Legislation. We came to the conclusion indicated by operating the subsequent judgments. For more clarity and thought, follow up with Master Class and gain more knowledge.. In agreeing to a schedule of accounts and annotated according to its primeneniyu1, by 08 disk imaging, specialized for the synthesis of the costs of the organization objects, which then will be taken to accounting as the principal means.

PsychoChief Strategies

I am the head – you're a fool, you're head – I'm a fool. So goes an old proverb old era bureaucratic control. To deepen your understanding Bank of America Corp. is the source. And, apparently, for a change of a whole generation has to change the approach to management, because not every head manager. But the old settings and meta-skills are far from the classics of management. Mr. Simon was given the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the theorem about the diversity of nature, which is this – the complexity of managing system must be at least equal to, or better more controlled system. That is, the brains of our rulers should be at least a little better, that is to have greater complexity, organization, than the complexity of the controlled system.

The task manager includes: planning, organizing, team building and decision making. Operational management – delegation of authority, coordination and control. Answers the question what to do. Leadership management responds to the question how to do it. How to influence people.

In the words of Professor Transfiguration – begins in the minds of devastation. Growth can be monitored by the manager of the trend of making inefficient to an effective standstill. How does skill development, including in business? Once the habit was formed, there is stagnation phase of skill. Man is programmed to optimize the cost of action for achieving result. The desire to conserve resources sewn in the subcortex. The entire history of humanity struggling to survive in low-resource settings. It is only since the 19th century, thanks to capitalism began to emerge over-production. The same imperative (optimization of) the person carries on all aspects of life, formed a habit or a dynamic stereotype. That is – an action that is performed unconsciously and not passed through a logic block. This raises the question – at some point this useful? If the person before taking important decisions to 05.06 throughout life, but now in the information boom, are "crucial" decisions a person has to take every day.

Liquidation Of Companies

Founders (participants) a legal person or body who made the decision on liquidation of the company must within 3 days from the date of such decision, in writing, notify the authorized state body (Territorial tax body at the location of the liquidated legal entity) to make the single state register of legal entities information about that entity is being wound up. At the same time a decision is made on the establishment of a liquidation commission (hereinafter – Commission) or the appointment of a sole liquidator determines the order and timing of the liquidation. Liquidation of the enterprise is held for about a pattern: Those who made the decision on liquidation shall appoint a liquidation commission. The liquidation commission shall publish in the press reported that the leadership of the legal person has decided to eliminate. The liquidation commission shall determine the debit and credit debts. The liquidation commission shall draw up an interim balance. Commission sets deadline for submission of financial claims, satisfies claims of creditors.

The Commission is the final liquidation balance sheet, which is the basis for the exclusion of legal entity from the state register of legal entities, ie, the basis for the liquidation of the company. .

Russian Federation

If this condition is not satisfied, the payment period is shifted to the moment when the supplier does not provide the required documents. In the contract the delivery of food products not allowed to ban people change in the obligation under such contract by assignment of the claim service buyers of food products in advertising of food products, marketing and other similar services aimed at the promotion of goods may be provided solely on the basis of contracts for the repayable rendering of services. Inclusion in the contract for the supply of food conditions on provide these services to the supplier, as well as contract supplies of food by forcing the conclusion of the contract of compensated rendering of services is prohibited by law. As part of antitrust regulation of the new law prohibits vendors and business networks: an obstacle to access to the commodity market or exit from the commodity market of other economic entities; violate the established normative regulations of pricing procedure, the counterparty to impose conditions: – the prohibition on contracting supply of food with other economic entities – liability for failure to obligation to supply food to the conditions that are better than those of other businesses engaged in similar activities – to provide counterparty information on contracts with other business entities engaged in similar activities – of making payment to the trading network for the right to supply food (in the functioning or offered by commercial sites) – a Introducing fees for changing assortment of food – to reduce their supplier of food prices to a level which provided the establishment of trade allowance (margin) to their price will not exceed minimum price of such goods when sold by business entities engaged in similar activities – compensation for a supplier of food losses due to loss or damage to such goods after the transfer of ownership of such goods, except if the loss or damage occurred through the fault of the provider – for reimbursement of expenses not related to the execution of the contract the delivery of food goods and the subsequent sale of specific batch of products – a return to the supplier of food products, not sold after a certain period, except if the return of such goods shall be allowed or provided by the legislation of the Russian Federation.

Management Thought

In describing the process of management thought, economists usually distinguish the following stages: budget and financial control, management, based on extrapolation; vision changes; management based on flexible urgent solutions. Development of management thought in the first phase took place in 1900-1950, respectively, when the company received widespread control on the basis of fiscal control, which was characterized by: internal reporting lines and the planned information system and the lack of information about the external environment of the enterprise. Budgetary control was carried out in the companies by amending the amount and structure of the income / expenditure, production and marketing as it changes the current economic situation in the country and around the world while maintaining the basic activities of the company. This reaction to changes in the period under review was the most natural for the company, however, require a lot of time understanding the inevitability of change, development of new rules of behavior and adapting to her management company as a whole. In conditions increase the rate of change in the early 1950s, this type of management was simply unacceptable. From 1951 to 1960 to replace the stage fiscal control came the second phase, a characteristic feature of which was to control based on extrapolation. Budget and financial control at this stage, supplemented with forecasts, extrapolating sales in the next few years.

On the basis of the control figures given in the sales forecast, identified all the functional plans: production, marketing, logistics, etc., which are then combined into a single financial plan. The main task of the manager was to identify the economic problems that limit growth organization. The third stage of development upravlenskoy thought occurred during the 1961-1980 period and is presented in the literature as a control on the basis of foresight and determination of changes in response to them by developing appropriate strategy. For this phase is characterized by: a departure from the extrapolation of estimates, accounting volatility factor activity; analysis of internal capabilities of the enterprise and external factors, finding ways to best use internal capabilities, taking into account external constraints and compliance requirements of existing reserves of the environment and alternative solutions. The fourth stage, from early 1980s to the present day, has been named managing based on flexible emergency management decisions or in circumstances where many important problems arise so quickly that they could not immediately provide.

Distinctive features of this control system are: the emphasis to implement policy decisions and the integration of administrative actions, decentralization and democratization of management, the growing importance of intuition and gain a qualitative approach to assessment, review of the company as the subject of an active impact on the environment, the use of strategy as a key management tool development company. The third stage of control is now also called strategic planning, and the fourth – the strategic management in real time. The combination of the latter two types of control are increasingly used for domestic enterprises. Strategic planning replaces a long-term planning and a periodic control. Management in real time is designed to help enterprise managers to competently respond to unexpected changes in the immediate external and internal environment of the organization.

Financial Management Company

Financial management is directly related to the management of the financial condition of the company. The financial condition of the company, the most important characteristic of its activities. It reflects the potential in the business, competitiveness, assess the degree of assurance of the economic interests of the company and its counterparties. At the company's financial influence all components of management, which can be divided into HR, finance, production, marketing, research papers, logistics and research and design robots. The main purpose of financial management is to maximize company's market value, to realize that in the management of the company should take a decision on three key areas: management of sources of resources, investment policy, dividend policy. The above directions are mutually conditioned, decisions on specific areas of investment are multivariate because they all have certain risks. Financial management of the company can considered as a single administrative package that includes: management of credit operations, risk management, management of securities transactions, management of real estate transactions, investments, foreign exchange management operations.

Financial Management Company serves as the organ of management and as a form of economic activity. Managerial staff of the financial sector in joint-stock company headed by a financial rule director, which is subordinate to the financial department, accounting, planning and economics department, a laboratory of economic analysis. The main directions in financial management are: the definition of goals and objectives of financial development, the definition of financial policies and programs of financial development of the company and its structures, development trends of the investment policy framework opredlenie credit policy; Budgeting estimates of funds to business units, creating cash flow plan, business plan development, implementation of payments to suppliers and contractors, ensuring financial activities; mortgage insurance, leasing, trust and other financial operations, business risks, management accounting and financial analysis. In large companies it is expedient select group of financial managers assigned to each particular course. The chief financial manager at the same time be put at the head of the group. In a market economy, one of the key positions in the company is financial manager. Its tasks can be grouped as follows. 1.

Credit and financial planning. Interaction with the banks on the cash execution of business plans and loans. 2. Direct opertsionnaya activity that is associated with ongoing costs, sales, distribution of profits. 3. Interaction with financial markets (securities, foreign exchange market, forex, credit, etc.) 4. Capital investment and acquisition intangible assets. 5. The analysis, ratings, internal audit, information. 6. Control of the movement and the financing of working capital and fixed assets. 7. Interaction with the state on taxes and mandatory deductions. As you can see, the financial manager is responsible for the financial problems, an analysis of the effectiveness of one or another of their decisions, and sometimes for making the final choices.

Economic Activity Afhd Enterprises

Financial and economic activities of the enterprise may be analyzed as a whole, as well as its individual functions and directions. To analyze the financial and economic activities necessary to carry out a large number of actions for the collection, compilation, registration and transfer documentation, identify and analyze patterns and trends, identification of prospects. The basis of the analysis is the monitoring that is ongoing, systematic monitoring of changes in state enterprises and an analysis of cause-effect relationships. In addition, monitoring helps to diagnose trends and patterns. The main activities businesses that can be analyzed include industrial activities, it is made by a certain technology, production cycles, technical specifications, commercial activities, it is different operations (trading, brokerage) sales and purchases of goods, products and services, investment, allocation of funds in a variety of assets, revenue-enhancing and cost businesses, social activities, meeting different needs in the socio-cultural aspect of the company's employees and their family members, full and harmonious development of employees; Financial activities aimed to ensure smooth business activities of financial resources; innovation in introducing new products, services, products, projects, increase production potential of the company, environmental activities on environmental protection, rational use of mineral resources, water and air, land, mineral resources, the use of environmentally sound technologies. Direct object of the analysis of financial and economic activities are the various manufacturing operations, technology, engineering and manufacturing facilities, production facilities, organizational structure, line and functional management structure. Objects of analysis of financial and economic activities of enterprises are sectoral and regional specificities, which must be considered in the analysis. The objects of analysis and diagnosis of the financial and economic activities include: human resources, it is measured by the presence of certain categories of labor resources and their professional capabilities, technical capabilities, it is understood by the general collection of different types of equipment, technologies and technical capabilities, efficiency technology; production potential, it combines various production capabilities of the enterprise for the production and sale of products, services, financial capacity, includes financial support for businesses using own, borrowed and borrowed funds, various types of business, their technical, material and financial support, and status.

West Strategy

Such internal services may, for example, be service to install the software that runs the technical department for the firm’s sales of the company. Accordingly, the category of contact personnel can be attributed most the organization. Thus, we can confidently determine the location of internal marketing in the business as an integrated personnel management policy. “Business has no nationality, the nationality have the money ‘- once said one of the foreign politicians on freedom of movement of capital in the international economy. A free hand to start implementing a CRM strategy can only return on investment expectations, the subsequent growth profitability.

After the story about the two main areas of investment (in new business – the processes and staff) completes our discussion of rational conversation about the principles of relationship management with customers. ‘Marriage of convenience or economy of relations with customers is well known that accounting is everything. Therefore, the methodology applied by the company management accounting must correspond to the strategy that it intends to implement. In this regard, the CRM strategy is a huge concern, because destroying the user stereotypes in business since time immemorial and is still behind the various courses of business – schools and universities. Traditionally, the marketing component of the accounting information was limited to records of sales in some markets, as well – information on the profitability issue dedicated to these markets in the standard characteristics of the goods and services. In relationship marketing such products and services disappear in the turbulent flow processes addressing customer. Manage relationships with this group of indicators as effectively as a compass to take in sail, showing only the West and East. To avoid loss of unexplored reefs should be opposed to its cost of business – processes, thus, operate in figures profitability relationship with a particular buyer.