In the minds of many analyzer is strongly associated with the definition of exhaust gases from automobiles. This is indeed the case. David Fowler has firm opinions on the matter. Monitoring toxicity – one of the main functions of the gas analyzer, but not the only one. Gas analyzer capable of resolving a wide range of tasks to the Exploration of the engine and its systems. Moreover, its diagnostic capabilities are so vast that we will not hesitate to put the gas analyzers in the base "Diagnostic of the pyramid." Gasoline-fueled internal combustion engines can be considered as a converter of chemical energy of fuel (gasoline). The converter uses fuel and oxidizer (oxygen in air). Add to your understanding with kind bars sales.

The reaction of rapid oxidation (burning) of fuel flowing into the combustion chamber, a large percentage of chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy (rotation of the crankshaft). This is – a positive fact, since in this is the main purpose of the engine. By law, dishonesty, while there are at least two unpleasant moment. Firstly, some of the released heat energy is dissipated in the elements of engine design. Her to be removed by using the cooling system.

Secondly, the burning of a by-chemical products. Some of them are neutral with regard to environmental impact (carbon dioxide CO2 O2 oxygen, water vapor, H2O), part – extremely harmful (hydrocarbons hc, carbon monoxide co, nitrogen oxides NOx). Not that we do not care about the environment, but at the moment of the byproducts of the reaction will be to us interesting primarily as a diagnostic parameter.

Labour Organization

The production process in the current realities can be determined in two of its tracks: 1) the movement of material production with the end result – the product sold, and 2) the motion of the planned production the end result – the scientific production. Depending on the methods of production of things in organizations having the right shop, and in government – the necessary links. Each organization consists of divisions, podtsehov, subsections, individual enterprises, management units and areas to meet the needs of employees of the organization. Strict division and allocation of the connections between them makes it necessary to clearly establish the production process and optimally create the structure of the organization. Each organization consists of divisions, podtsehov, subsections, individual enterprises, management units and areas to meet the needs of employees of the organization. Definition dependencies between them makes it necessary to create manufacturing process and create the optimal structure of the organization. Determine the production and the overall structure of the organization.

First, the organization determines number of organizational units (industrial structure), as well as porazdeleny Control Organization (organizational structure), and control of employees, their composition, size and weight between them Total area occupied, number of employees, and throughput capacity. Within the Management Services should note the technical and economic, industrial, operational, personnel department, accounting, marketing services, supply service. For farmers to meet the needs of employees include a dining room, health center, housing, a reading room, nursery, health spa, holiday items. Under the production structure determined the proportion of industrial components organization, its member, the direction of the interactions between them. Production structure – is the proportion of the main structure, the main part of the main parts of the organization (production, farms, shops), their interaction, composition and direction of integration, the proportion of the number of employed staff, the price of machines, the occupied territory and its position.

Identify areas and units in the production structure is important to separate subsidiary, serving, main and side units. The basic units of automobile factory are preliminary (Foundries and cutting), the processing (machining and mechanical), sozdayushie (assembly plant, the creation of equipment). Auxiliary units are tools, energy, repair, mechanical and non-standard equipment. By servicing units include storage and . Educate yourself with thoughts from Gary Kelly. Side units are areas of consumer goods, recycling raw materials.

Building Regulations

Characteristics of "cold flow" in accordance with the standards iec 60331 and iec 60332 in some cables are subject to additional requirements fire and . Most of the cables of this type have the characteristic "cold flow" cushion the inner shell. This means that when a certain pressure to the shell, for example, causes contraction of the inner membrane seal compression type, the material properties of the data flow, which leads to a violation of the effectiveness of sealing. Paragraph 9.1.3 "Building Regulations" (UK) en 60079-14: 1997 / iec 60079-14: 1996 prohibits the use of cable glands to seal compression type cable with a characteristic "cold flow". Cable gland 501/453/Universal company Hawke has an inner shell diaphragm seal type, fully meet the above requirement of "Building Regulations" and has minimal pressure on the inner shell cable entry. Seal does not damage the cable jacket material ("Cold flow"), but supports the corresponding class of ip and explosion. Why is it important to choose the right type of cable glands? Proper installation.

Only specially trained craftsmen to guarantee the correct installation of cable glands. The world's major contractors and the contractors follow the professional level of employees, and in most cases the requirement is to obtain a certificate recognized by prestigious courses, for example, CompEx. However, not all countries, this requirement is mandatory. It is therefore important that the procedure for assembling the selected type of cable glands was fairly simple, with each entry was applied detailed instructions for assembling and sealing gaskets can be easily checked at each stage of assembly.

Structural Elements

Mechanical surface of the parts subject to heating and melting during welding, called welded edges. To ensure the penetration of the edges depending on the thickness of the base metal (S) and the welding process gives them the most optimal form, performing pre-edge preparation. The main parameters of the form prepared by the edges and collected weld joints are /, R, c, b, and -, respectively, flanging height, radius, blunt edges, a gap, the angle of the bevel angle of cutting edges. Uncut portion of the edges with a known blunt edges, the distance b between the edges of the assembly – a gap, a sharp angle p between the plane of the bevel edge and the plane end – bevel angle, the angle between a chamfered edges – cutting the corner. Learn more at: Larry Ellison. Flare edges are used for welding thin-walled parts. On thick-walled parts perform Cutting edge by a straight or curved oblique bevel the edges to be welded. The type and angle cutting edges determines the number needed to fill the electrode metal cutting, and hence the productivity of welding.

When an X-shaped cutting edge in comparison with the V-shape can reduce the amount of deposited metal in 1,6 1,7 times. In addition, such cutting provides less amount of strain after welding. When an X-shaped and V-shaped cutting edge blunts for the correct formation of the seam and prevent burn-through. The gap in the assembly weld is determined depending on the thickness and chemical composition of the welded alloys, the welding, construction connected parts and the connection type.

Indispensable Element

Companies engaged in manufacturing and packaging, each year produces an enormous number of varieties and designs of the packaging itself. Normally oriented in such diversity is possible only if knowing all the intricacies of production. Tara package – a set of tools which should protect any products from the impact on the quality of environmental damage and loss, to protect products from contamination and the negative impact of other products, located near, carry information on the nature of the producer to the consumer. Larry Ellison: the source for more info. Briefly packaging ensures the normal product quality all the way trade. All containers and packaging to classify the individual subgroups. It is necessary to accurately locate the desired package in its vast diversity. With a special classification may be established communication The characteristics and properties of certain components of the package destination.

Designing, planning and organization of production also require the use of classifications. For commercial products the most common is a sign of the destination, which can best be used at all levels of classification, especially at the higher. Based on this criterion, the first stage of classification package should be divided into consumer, transportation, production and preservatives. Consumer Packaging comes with the products directly to consumers, is an integral part of the goods and is included in the price. This package does not is usually self-transportation and does not create a separate transport unit and has limited weight, capacity and dimensions. Transport packaging is a separate independent transport unit is used for transportation of goods in consumer packages or unpackaged products. Industrial packaging is used as part of the technology in the organization production process on one or several companies and is not intended for sales in retail outlets. Preserving packaging required for long-term conservation of raw materials, products, equipment, machinery, and hazardous waste (chemical, radioactive, etc.).

Equipment For Baking

Crucial to improve the efficiency of social production and, above all for the growth of labor productivity in the baking industry is the introduction of new technology, contributing to the intensification processes, reduce production cycle and reduce the technological losses of raw materials. Equipment Bakery Products are classified according to the following criteria: functional grounds, the nature of impacts on the processed product, the structure of the working cycle, the degree of mechanization and automation. On functional grounds Equipment Bakery Products are divided into groups, unifying principle, the same machine for their impact on product design and constructive. * Equipment for transportation, storage, preparation of flour and supplementary materials; * Equipment for screening, Mix flour (mukoproseivateli, etc.). * Dosing equipment, mixers for water and other liquids, mixers, solvents. * Equipment for the preparation of dough – testoprigotovitelnye units, mixers, Installations for fermenting dough device to transfer the test to testorazdelochnym machines. * Testorazdelochnoe equipment – divider and testoformuyuschie machine (okruglitelnye and sealers), machines for molding special varieties of bakery products and systems for proofing the shaped pieces of dough (the preliminary and final), on which the test piece, while at rest and restore their physical properties, lost in the process of forming. * Heat units for processing the test, in which the dough by the heat converted into finished products (baking oven), units for steaming and , auxiliary heating equipment (boilers, water heaters).

* Equipment for the processing of baked products – installations and equipment for moving, sorting and cooling of bread laying, packing, Wrapping and packaging machinery. * Equipment for the production of special types of products (biscuits, confectionery, etc.) and accessories (for lubricating machine forms and worksheets, etc.). * Installations and equipment for heating, ventilation and air conditioning. * Electrical bakeries. * Testing and measuring and regulating equipment, devices and automatic control systems. Improvement testoprigotovitelnogo equipment, in addition, must provide an opportunity to work in two shifts and were stopped at the weekend.

With a complete set of new lines of processing equipment should consider the possibility of processing of flour with different baking properties. In this direction is promising to use the new mixers with increased intensity of mechanical action on the dough. The use of such machines units makes them more compact and allows the complex to mechanize and automate the process and allow control of the intensity mixing and duration of fermentation depending on the properties of flour and yeast. Qualified personnel must know the device machinery and rules for its operation. Furthermore, it should study the relevant installation instructions manual and instructions on security measures.

Single-Threaded Cables

The use of cables single-threaded (eg ) in cable structures feeding centers is prohibited. Allowed wiring of foreign production, produced by domestic Guests with a mandatory check technical characteristics of the cables. Cabling is allowed after the issuance of SIIiKL Protocol, which confirmed that the characteristics of the cable meet the requirements of gost or tu. New domestic brands cables designed vniikp can be installed in the iss, controlled SSIiKL in the presence of vniikp and manufacturer. Padded new brand of cables during pilot operation are under special control. Requirements for cable, routes before making excavation or construction work by the representatives of the installation company must submit to the district iss project to refine the route cables, because for period of time from design to installation could be changes in the territory on which to lay the cable.

Requirements for inspection trenches trenching done after confirmation that the track is made strictly according to the geodesic by compliance with the vertical marks the bottom of the trench, the trench with bindings to various landmarks. It should particularly pay attention to planning the mark on the entire length of the track. Depth trench from the planning notes should be 8m. When crossing streets, squares – 1,1 m. Less depth of the trench to 0.6 m allowed the cable entry into the building and also at the intersection with underground facilities subject to protection cables from mechanical damage in areas up to 5m. Immediately prior to laying cables in the trench by the representatives of the district, carrying out technical supervision, inspect the readiness of the trench:-powder sand or shallow ground (the thickness of padding should not be less than 100mm), stowage and (if necessary) pipes, pipe diameters and their conformity to the design grade cable-logging sand or shallow land across the highway to follow ing powder cables across the road, half-finished brick or plates for the mechanical protection of cables across the road (or the presence of the signal band), the lack of water in the trench, the absence of stones and other objects in the trench, the radii of the corners rotations trench-deep trench across the highway-sealed pipe penetrations through the issuance of building foundations and walls, spaced around the track linear and angular spots (angular curves rollers should be fixed).