Stable Political Systems

The story of shares has its roots in antiquity. Stocks were already known in the era of slavery, which lasted from the time of formation of the first stable political systems and the creation of writing in such ancient centers of civilization as Ancient Egyptian state (epoch 1-3rd Kings) and the Ancient Sumerian state in the lower reaches of the Euphrates (mid 4th millennium BC – the end of the 5th century AD). Already at the time of Athens Merchants and Entrepreneurs (Athens was at that time the economic center of ancient Greece and, accordingly, had the most developed system of commodity-money relations) there was a form of trade and production activities on the basis of the contributed capital. Share in the total capital of such enterprise, the participants had already formalized in the form of the expression of papyrus or parchment scrolls, which indicated the number of participants enterprises, their contributions and the amount due from them in the city treasury of taxes. In the modern sense it was a charter company. These lists were registered in Komichi, who knew trade and crafts and then stored in Temple of Hermes patron of merchants and seafarers. Prescribed in these "statutes" share investors – the founders established the respective rights and making a profit.

In the days of Ancient Rome appeared, even the first documents that could be called a prototype remote shares. True, they do not appear in trade and not in the business, and in the field, so to speak, "slaveholding" capital. As a rule, it was receipt issued by one slave owner to another – the owner of a slave or slaves of passed this first for the work, mainly on agricultural latifundia. Additional information is available at Master Class. This consolidated the receipt the duty of the slaveholder, who supplied slaves to deduct the one who gave him those slaves in use, a certain share of manufactured products with their help in kind or in cash.

European Union

In international contracts Dutch legislation, the legislation of the European Economic Community addressed the issue of a contract within the internal market. The Commission on European Contract Law has established the Principles of European Contract Law. Principles of European Contract Law have a strong similarity with the Dutch rule of law in the means of protection against default. As the Dutch rules, principles of European Contract Law only satisfy the requirement for compensation if the responsible debtor is unable to fulfill its obligation. Other contracts, such as the Vienna Convention of Commerce and the Principles of the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT), are important primary sources in international contracts.

Private international law International contract often has no conditionality choice of forum. Baby clothes has many thoughts on the issue. In these situations, the rules of private international law to consider establish that the court is authorized to settle the dispute. Spores of a competent court mainly arise in situations where parties to a contract are registered in different countries. Civil Procedure Dutch court allows jurisdiction in matters relating to contracts. Competent court to be appointed court of the place. Jurisdiction of Dutch courts based on European legal norms, recognition and binding upon the court in civil and commercial matters. According to regulations, the sale of goods, the place of the commitment of the contract will state – member of the European Union, where, under the contract, the goods were delivered or should have been delivered.

In the case of services – will be the state – a member of the European Union – where the contract, the services were provided or should have been provided. Terms and Conditions in the Netherlands – the Netherlands, many companies in the Netherlands use the terms and conditions. As a result, many contracts and agreements defined these terms and conditions. Dutch law has strict rules regarding the general terms and conditions.

Electronic Government

As is well known within the program 'Electronic Russia' realized the concept of 'electronic government', or rather e-government (electronic control), the structure of the government introduction of modern information technologies that should make life easier, as officials and ordinary citizens. Already, there are echoes of this program, utilities (light, electricity, rent) is possible through electronic terminals and the Internet. Writing to a doctor and a reception at the famous self-governments also implemented, and where there is no – that will be implemented in the near future. Many questions can be given through the online application until management of entire departments. Indeed, we live in an age of information technology and can not benefit from it.

But not everyone is willing and ready to make that choice in favor of the latest technologies. This choice is done must now, not postponing it indefinitely. Technology is rapidly changing, simplified, becoming more friendly to humans. No need to fear the difficulties along the way – on the Internet today and five years preschoolers, and the septuagenarian patriarch, the same chance in his quest for new knowledge. We can not be late, because just around the corner is a new technological revolution. On its banners will be written not only letters I – Information and E – electronics.

I'm sure there will be and the letter M – mobility. This revolution has already begun for all who is the owner of a new type of PDA – the mobile phone. Such people in Russia today without Small and thirty million. And where there is now 'smart' phone, tomorrow – the mobile Internet, on-line games, mobile commerce, mobile banking, mobile guide jack of all trades, there is new knowledge and new opportunities. Practically all government services from local government ministries to have well-developed communication in terms of local and corporate networks. Virtually all agencies have a server to share information on secure communication channels (corporate network). Much has been done in order to obtain information to which you want to pass on the ten instances, can be realized with a few keystrokes. This fact can not please, because then we can focus more on family, leisure, instead of running the chain of command and gather information and statements. All of these are responses the concept of electronic government. State program 'Electronic Russia' must be implemented by 2010, it will become the threshold of the Information Society in electronic.