Contaminations

Yeung introduction et al. (1997) it demonstrates that ground contaminations with oil hydro-carbons had become a world-wide problem in the half of years 80. With the increasing number of discoveries of cases of emptyings, these contaminations have been white of innumerable research and constitute a challenge for the professionals who act in the ambient sanitation, in function of the complexity of the geoqumicos phenomena and biochemists who are catalyzed from its insertion in the subsoil. When this contaminante reaches the ground, its components is broken up in three phases: dissolved, liquid and gaseous. A small fraction of the components of the mixture if dissolves in the water of the fretico sheet, the second portion is restrained in the porous spaces of the ground in its pure liquid form as residual saturation and another part of the passveis contaminantes of evaporation gives origin to the atmospheric contamination (NADIM et al., 1999). Therefore, a time established to the contamination, this will be able to act in three different levels: ground, underground water and atmosphere. With this, the task of evaluation of the extension, dynamics, concentration of the contaminations, analysis of risks and possible strategies of remediation becomes complex.

Several remediation techniques come being applied and studied, being biorremediao one of most promising (BERNOTH et al., 2000). The biological organic composite degradation, as the oil derivatives, effectively is only reached when favorable ambient conditions are established, such as concentration of nutrients (nitrogen, match and potassium), humidity, pH, temperature and aeration. Beyond these factors, second BLESSED et al. (2005), the knowledge regarding the concentration and of the type of the contaminante oil, the population density of degrading microrganismos and of its potential for the biodegradao is basic for the effectiveness of biodegradao process. Revision of literature the problems generated for the contamination of the ground for total hydro-carbons of oil (TPH) are several.